Social Behavior and Organization Among Vertebrates presents societal forces such as reproduction, co-operation and competition with charismatic science.

Social Behavior And Organization Among Vertebrates

Serving as a thorough introduction to evidence gathered by his zoologist buddies, William Etkin describes animal society as a structured web of interactions created by individuals co-operating and competing in response to species-held signals and intra-chemical reactions. The compact volume is filled with useful discussions for sorting the contradictory nature of the human animal.

My copy’s dust jacket is missing, its spine water-stained and its condition poor. Despite this, the sharp black letterforms left-aligned and embossed on its canvas cover caught my eye. Inside, the heady discussion of topics such as social rank, aggressive behavior and shifts in adrenal cortex weight are held together equally by justified paragraphs and illustrated vignettes. Each page rational, humble and optimistic by design.

For example, a male tern brings a fish to his “intended” mate. At this time the mate is perfectly capable of fishing for herself and this attention seems superfluous. After toying with the fish for a while the female may discard it. Clearly, hunger played no role here. Yet all along the shore in the spring, terns may be seen presenting pieces of fish to others and doing it, furthermore, with elaborate, precise, and formal ritualistic movements.
p9 Social Behavior…


### Collaborative production

Social Behavior and Organization Among Vertebrates was published in 1964 by the University of Chicago Press right before Morris Philipson became director in 1967. It remains a classic example of collaborative production with its prescient blend of anecdotal summary and rigorous observational data. Clocking in at 306 pages, these 6 scientists link mammalian behavior and reproduction to the social, chemical and global climate cycles. By working together, they create a book strengthened by the hard-binding of a well-regarded press but powered by the soft-binding of their personal friendships, shared interests and pooled resources. Each is given their own space to work within, therefore each is given responsibility to the whole. This co-operation gives their ideas the best chance at survival.


Further, these scientists were aware of beauty’s power to persuade and decided to take the presentation seriously. As much as we would like to believe that our decisions are based on rationality over emotion, we must concede that many decisions are outside our complete control. Put plainly, we want what we want when we want it. Therefore, the acceptance of ideas, just as the incorporation of gene mutations into a species population, depend on certain rituals of presentation.

### Standardized courtship


FIG. 7.9 documents intricate courtship movements of surface-feeding ducks, frozen into distinct poses over time. Once documented, these movements can be observed in all members of the species from a particular locality. [Originally from K. Lorenz] It is this standardization, this signaling of intention, that unites a species. Animals raised in isolation, will not exhibit this learned behavior. I find it interesting that we can observe such clear standardization in other vertebrates and not corellate it to contemporary human society. Humans are products of their social structure and the opportunities available within that structure and continuously balance their dual nature to compete against and co-operate within their society.


Even Andy Warhol, noticed the standardizing aesthetic of photobooth picture strips and resulting allure of his birds posturing over time. Notice Edie Sedgwick’s turn of her face in the first and third strip from the left. These two poses are almost identical, and appear unconsciously copied. Further, Warhol’s portraits in drag were in fact copies of these poses, direct implementation of learned behavior.

### Social Group or Aggregation


But surely, our socializing is more complex than knowing when a girl is flirting with you and when she has a crick in her neck. We can recognize signals, but to what end?

It is clear that our organizations are built on shared signals and insider vocabularies define group boundaries and knowledge of the group. But do all social groups require the same amount of commitment to be included?

“a flock of sheep is a social group, since it is maintained by the social responses of the animals to one another; but the massing of insects around a light at night is an aggregation, since it results from their common attraction to the light.”
p24 Social Behavior…

I’m interested in this distinction especially when applied to human socialization. When considering Longhorn fans, a megachurch, rock band or austin art scene, which are aggregations and which are social groups? And since both aggregations and social groups exist within human society, how is each useful?

### Art y fact


Social Behavior and Organization Among Vertebrates was clearly conceived as a cultural artifact, in the same class as other gestures created when scientists and artists share common interests. Etkin compiled the book in the late fifties during a time of sustained economic growth, returning soldiers and technological expansion, when science was too important to be left to the scientists. I imagine purchasing a copy after turning up a Stubborn Kind of Fellow 45 or on my way home from seeing 2001: A Space Oddyssey.

Experimental tests have supported the modern view that natural selection operating on the genetic system of higher organisms can effect rapid and delicate adaptation of these organisms to the changing demands on the environment. Dobzhansky 1951


Further, Etkin’s evolution-supporting edition refutes Creationism’s biblical estimate of a 6,000 year old Earth. This could lead you to believe that his book trashes religion, but instead his observations support notions that organized religion might actually serve civilization best as a potential stabilizer.


The human animal can be driven towards faith in all manner of situations. But, left unchecked this faith can develop into a challenge to our species’ survival when given control over government and the military. When *any* majority belief excludes humanity’s tech-assisted evolution from primates and our inherent and embraceable similarities to other mammals we are choosing to break with ancestors. We walk upright among the vertebrates, and we must teach this critical path.

With difficult, untaught content, the old guard scientists refactored their stories into simplest form, but none simpler, before presenting. Having bore the intellectually bankrupt permutations of a generation of social darwinists, these experimental archives were finally fit to print.

### And print they did

Nothing reveals a deep-seeded Bauhaus love and serious fontnerd involvement more than essay titles such as The Evolution of Signaling Devices rigorously typeset in Paul Renner’s Futura. In this spirit and in the spirit of opposing those wrong-headed social darwinists, we should remember that Renner’s letterforms were produced in opposition to his participation in the German ranks. It is my faith, that Futura was produced in hope for the triumph of rationality and scientific balance.

“In Renner’s view, the taste for large volumes, which equated weight with prestige, betrayed a potential flaw in the German character: ‘the fatal desire for greatness,’ by which Hitler was also notoriously motivated.”
Art of Typography

So, in a continued state of war, religious fervor and outright barbarism is it any wonder that Futura, the papadopoulous, and its inspired son, Neutraface, born from the architecture of Silicon Valley, now seem to show themselves everywhere: from bricks to billboards, and monograms to grammies? Our idealism and its aesthetic remain, as we seek to embed both in creations that outlive us.

### Until they ran out
Social Behavior and Organization Among Vertebrates is available, although not directly. Here are a few used book resellers to try if interested and a few high resolution scans from my archive if your public library‘s copy has gone missing.

+ pp. ii, iii
+ p. 1
+ pp. 6, 7
+ pp. 10, 11
+ pp. 50, 51
+ pp. 78, 79
+ pp. 94, 95
+ p. 194
+ p. 195

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Catalog Essay by James Housefield


Reminder, 2005-2006 at The Dallas Contemporary. On view March 31-June 10, 2006.

“I work to make art out of as little as possible,” Hunter Cross remarks with typical understatement. 1 For the installation created by Cross in this exhibition, Post-it® notes, tabletop fans, and Astroturf work in tandem with the painted image of a tree to create Reminder (2005-2006), 2 an ephemeral work that changes throughout the course of the exhibition. His act of deliberate self-limitation leads to an art that is greater than the sum of its parts, for the humble materials he uses to create works of substantial impact.

Cross asserts that “by making ephemeral work, I feel I am making honest work, gestures that celebrate their own passing. However, I often use traditional mediums such as photography, drawing, and self-published books to collect, communicate, and propose my ideas.” 3 Here, a tree painted directly on the wall in traditional mural style, is modified by the addition of leaves made of Post-it® notes from which a leaf shape has been cut using an industrial produced die. Oscillating fans cause them to blow and flutter within the gallery space, eventually falling to the ground when their glue fails. With the ephemeral installation of Reminder, an age-old association between leaves of paper and leaves of trees encourages viewers to consider the relationships between industry and environment. Cross has handcrafted a numbered edition of leaves that will be used throughout the travels of New Art in Austin.

Untitled (Public Opinion), 1991 by Felix Gonzalez-Torres at the Guggenheim.

He looks to examples in recent art like that of Felix Gonzalez-Torres, who invited visitors to participate in the life of artworks by taking a candy or an offset print as a gift or memento. Each of the tree’s leaves will be renewed in distinct “seasons” or “cycles” of its life in each of the exhibition venues, and visitors will be encouraged to take a single Post-it® leaf as a memento of this exhibition. At times, that may leave the painted tree barren of its leaves, echoing the ephemerality of nature and of aesthetic experiences alike.

An audience member grabbing a leaf.

One might also ponder the ephemeral nature of technologies that appear indispensible because of their ubiquity. How often does one stop to consider how recently the omnipresent Post-it note® was invented? How did businesses operate without them? How did memory operate without the act of posting adhesive-backed colored slips of paper? Cross’s art asks viewers to consider the ephemerality built into a culture of novelty and of rising tides of expectations, whether that be the culture of art, commerce, science, or technology.

Postgraduate studies at the famed Pont-Aven School of Contemporary Art in France were instrumental in Cross’s early artistic development, and built upon foundations he established as a student at Trinity University in San Antonio. His studies at Trinity prepared him to work in the field of communications design. Design experience has had direct and indirect impact on his broader art. He has worked with modular design elements, using mass-produced craft toys to create a typeface that he tested on a hand-built printing press, then transferred to digital form. His computer-based design work has liberated him to perceive the material nature of utilitarian objects that might be overlooked in their daily use.

Video documentation of Reminder, 2005-2006 at Galveston Arts Center

“I use computers so much that most office supplies are just ‘stuff’ to me,” he remarks, discussing his fascination with these supplies’ potential as the materials from which art can be made. 4 Despite seeing the roles for computers within his tool kit as designer and artist, Cross ventures that “I don’t think visual art is what computers do best. I think conceptual art works best as social currency among people.” 5 A heritage of conceptual art is one of the many reminders to which the title of Cross’s work points. Viewers of New Art in Austin may leave the exhibition with their own reminders of this new season of artists, carrying a piece of Cross’s Reminder with them as they go.

  1. Hunter Cross, “Artist’s Statement,” undated, but before 15, January 2005.
  2. Originally read “(2002)” which referenced the initial installation of the project at Trinity University. Changed to “(2005-2006)” to better represent the series of sequentially numbered Post-it® notes and the 4 installations of this project (621 W. 30th St., Austin Museum of Art, Galveston Arts Center, The Dallas Contemporary) created for this touring exhibition. – HC
  3. Ibid.
  4. Interview with the artist, 21 March 2005.
  5. Ibid.

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